Demand Response at the Household Level

Can heat pumps in households contribute to grid stability?

This research sought to understand and estimate the marginal costs of shifting heat pump electricity use in households to contribute to grid stability. A collaboration with Pirmin Boch and Prof. Wolfram Mollenkopf at the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, this research question was addressed in the following steps:

Demand characteristics vs. marginal price bid

First the demand characteristics of the grid itself were studied by analyzing data published by the German TSOs at Total grid demand for secondary reserve power (SRL) is available as a timeseries at a resolution of 4 seconds. Bidders in the SRL market are called upon to provide positive and negative reserve power according to their bids’ position in the merit order list. As all bids in the SRL market are anonymously published on, these two sources of data were used to rebuild the merit order activation of power for SRL and allowed for estimation and description of SRL demand characteristics and how this demand changes for different energy price bids.

Given this information, we then simulated a household with a heat pump, a power-2-heat boiler, a heat storage unit and a rooftop solar-thermal supply. In this simulation we tested the physical ability of the combination of units to participate directly with a energy bid in the SRL market.

(More details to come.)


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